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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Basic Research Proposal and paper on Impact of adolescent pregnancy on maternal morbidity. Zakiul Alam. Impact of adolescent pregnancy on maternal morbidity 1. Introduction 1. And marriage is almost universal in Bangladesh and in many other countries. The early the marriage, the early the pregnancy might be.
The early pregnancy which is simply called adolescent marriage makes trouble maternal life. Even this pregnancy makes unnecessarily maternal death as well as child death.
According to WHO, world health organization every day, approximately women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth In Bangladesh, the maternal morbidity as well as maternal death is slightly higher than that of other areas of the world due high rate of early marriage as well as early pregnancy.
Maternal morbidity is especially increasing in Bangladesh as maternal morbidity includes any kinds of illness or injuries caused or aggregated by, or associated with pregnancy WHO.
However as health practitioner tells that adolescent girls are not enough mature to bear a child. It might be very high the girl is illiterate. A general statement is that if a fruit is low in quality then it might provide less and low quality of result. Like this, if the mother is small as well as young, she is more likely to give birth to a small, weak baby whose chances of survival are equally small.
Many children of adolescent mothers have higher incidence rate of low birth weight, still birth or any other birth related complications. With child mortality there is a good number of maternal mortality due to adolescent pregnancy. InWHO specially shows that maternal mortality due to morbidity by pregnancy is higher in women living in rural areas and among poorer communities in developing countries e.
They also argued that young adolescents face a higher risk of complications and death as a result of pregnancy than older women. Maternal mortality is unacceptably high. About women die from pregnancy- or childbirth-related complications around the world every day.
Inwomen died during and following pregnancy and childbirth. Almost all of these deaths occurred in low-resource settings like Bangladesh.The maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths perlive births.
In lateThe DHS Program began implementing changes to the maternal mortality questionnaires and terminology to clarify the distinction between maternal and pregnancy-related mortality.
WHO defines maternal mortality as deaths to women while pregnant, during childbirth, or within 42 days of delivery or end of pregnancy that are due to the pregnancy. Deaths due to accidents or acts of violence that occur during this time period are not counted as maternal deaths.
DHS defines pregnancy-related mortality as deaths to women from any cause while pregnant, during childbirth, or within 2 months of delivery or end of pregnancy. The DHS Program has collected information on pregnancy-related mortality since the late s, so data users can examine trends in the pregnancy-related mortality ratio.
However, DHS estimates of the pregnancy-related mortality ratio are not a precise measure of pregnancy-related mortality and their limitations can make interpretation difficult, particularly when trying to determine if the pregnancy-related mortality ratio has changed between surveys.
Maternal Mortality. Some countries choose to include questions on deaths to sisters in the DHS questionnaire to calculate maternal and pregnancy-related mortality.Preventing infant and maternal death continues to be a pressing charge for states. State lawmakers recognize the human, societal and financial costs of infant and maternal mortality and seek to address these perennial problems.
This brief presents factors contributing to infant and maternal death and provides state-level solutions and policy options. Also provided are examples of how states are using data to identify opportunities for evidence-based interventions, determine evidence-based policies that help reduce U.
After decades of decline, the maternal mortality rate in the United States has increased over the last 10 years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCbetween and women in the United States die each year from pregnancy-related complications, illnesses or events. Inthe U. Infant mortality is the death of a child within the first year of life.
The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths for every 1, live births. Inthe total number of infant deaths in the United States was approximately 22, The infant mortality rate was 5. State rates varied substantially, from 3.
In the United States, infant mortality rates are higher than those of other wealthy nations Health Affairs. Some of the variation may be due to different reporting methods. For example, in the United States, the infant mortality rate includes perinatal, neonatal and post-neonatal deaths.
Perinatal deaths are those that occur within one week of birth, neonatal deaths are those that occur between eight and 27 days after birth, and post-neonatal deaths are measured as deaths occurring between 28 days and one year after birth. Other countries, however, may make different distinctions or set different limits for gestational age and birthweight in their data collection HRSA and Kaiser Family Foundation.
International comparisons may also be affected by the racial and ethnic variation in birth outcomes within the United States. For example, African American women are three to four times more likely to die during or as a result of childbirth than non-Hispanic white women.
The maternal mortality rate for African American women is 42 perlive births. For non-Hispanic white women, the rate is 12 perThe disparity in this rate has remained unchanged for six decades. Although the United States continues to show overall improvements in infant mortality, w omen of color and their children also bear a disproportionate burden of infant deaths Kim et al.
Even in low-risk mothers, children born to African American women are more than twice as likely to die before their first birthday than are children born to non-Hispanic white women.
Researchers continue to examine mechanisms that perpetuate such racial disparities, yet explanations remain unclear. For example, data show that non-Hispanic white women who report smoking during pregnancy a known risk factor have lower infant mortality rates than African American women who do not smoke during pregnancy. These findings contradict the notion that the higher infant mortality among African American women is explained by unhealthy behaviors during pregnancy. Likewise, the infant mortality rate among foreign-born women of African descent is significantly lower than that of African American women.
Infant mortality rates among foreign-born women of African descent are similar to those of non-Hispanic white women, yet strikingly, within one generation, rates of preterm birth and low birthweight significant risk factors for infant death begin to mirror those of African American women David et al. This suggests that women of African descent are not genetically predisposed to higher incidences of infant mortality.
Cumulative stress, often higher in African American women, takes a physical toll, including during pregnancy and childbirth. Daily social, environmental and economic conditions, such as where we live, work and play, are referred to as the social determinants of health.
These non-medical factors heavily influence the health of populations. For example, educational attainment is considered a social determinant of health, and research suggests that girls who are educated tend to be healthier throughout their lives and go on to have fewer and healthier children. The U. Social and economic well-being also affect population health. For example, rural residents are more likely to experience isolation, limited job opportunities and poor housing quality.
These conditions can increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, including outcomes for moms and babies Rural Health Information Hub.Contents Chapter 1: introduction 1. In Bangladesh, like many other developing countries among the major underlying factors leading to poor maternal situation include very low percentages of women actually seek professional medical assistance for pregnancy related care, deliveries and complications. To reach our goal this study is done. It was observed that almost all the deliveries Only The rate of receiving assistance from medically trained personnel was lower among mothers utilizing insufficient antenatal health care services.
Middle aged women received delivery assistance more from medically trained personnel than the adolescents and women with higher age group. The main contributing factors likely to affect delivery practices were mass media exposure, husband's occupation, education, antenatal care received, type of toilet facilities and household quality index.
The high-risk group such as adolescents and higher aged women need special care and the existing health management system may be strengthened to create awareness among mothers of these groups for seeking appropriate measures from the beginning of pregnancy. There is need to ensure the availability of maternal health care centres for providing antenatal care and expand and improve the quality of normal delivery at home by trained providers and introduce post-partum visits.
It is equally important that education for women is emphasised to bring about a lasting impact on the overall health condition of women.
Safe motherhood begins before conception with proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle and continues with appropriate prenatal care, the prevention of complications, and the early and effective treatment of complications.
The ideal result is a full-term pregnancy, the delivery of a healthy infant, and a healthy postpartum period in a positive environment that supports the physical and emotional needs of the woman, infant, and family.
Unfortunately, pregnancy complications still do occur. CDCs Division of Reproductive Health conducts research to understand the burden of maternal complications and death and to decrease disparities among populations at risk of death and complications from pregnancy.
A woman dies from complications in childbirth every minute abouteach year -- the vast majority of them in developing countries. A woman in sub-Saharan Africa has a 1 in 16 chance of dying in pregnancy or childbirth, compared to a 1 in 4, risk in a developing country the largest difference between poor and rich countries of any health indicator. This glaring disparity is reflected in a number of global declarations and resolutions.
The direct causes of maternal deaths are haemorrhage, infection, obstructed labour, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, and complications of unsafe abortion.
There are birth-related disabilities that affect many more women and go untreated like injuries to pelvic muscles, organs or the spinal cord. And yearly 8 million babies die before or during delivery or in the first week of life. Further, many children are tragically left motherless each year.
These children are 10 times more likely to die within two years of their mothers' death. Another risk to expectant women is malaria. It can lead to anaemia, which increases the risk for maternal and infant mortality and developmental problems for babies.
Nutritional deficiencies contribute to low birth weight and birth defects as well. HIV infection is an increasing threat.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in lowresource settings, especially in those countries where infection in adults is continuing to grow or has stabilised at very high levels, continues to be a major problem, with up to 45 per cent of HIV-infected mothers transmitting infection to their children. Further, HIV is becoming a major cause of maternal mortality in highly affected countries in Southern Africa. A majority of these deaths and disabilities are preventable, being mainly due to insufficient care during pregnancy and delivery.Related Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.
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Menu Skip to content. Maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
To facilitate the identification of maternal deaths in circumstances in which cause of death attribution is inadequate, a new category has been introduced: Pregnancy-related death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death. Maternal mortality levels are a key indicator of the status of women in society. In south Asia in die from complications in pregnancy and child birth.
This report outlines methods for measuring maternal mortality and presents data for developing nations especially in Bangladesh, comparing it to developed nations and determining its contribution to overall mortality. The risk of dying as a result of a given pregnancy in a developed nation is at least fold smaller than that in the poorest countries in Africa and Asia.
Estimated mortality due to pregnancy ismore women in the undeveloped nations compared to the developed nations. For the reason most of the maternal mortality happened in Bangladesh. A research proposal is prepared to investigate the impact of maternal mortality situation in Bangladesh.
The research will evaluate the significant of maternal mortality to the overall country. The type of maternal mortality will be examined by considering some social factors, knowledge related to gender and illness.
A qualitative, non-experimental research approach will be undertaken. Data will be collected from secondary sources. This research is aimed at evaluating the consequences of maternal mortality and overall impact of the maternal mortality. An exploratory qualitative research approach was chosen in order to facilitate collection of behavioral and subjective data.
A case study strategy was adopted. Some other background and significant, statistical comparison between Bangladesh and other Asian countries, methodology, research techniques and questions also include understanding the maternal mortality conditions. The secondary data and associated literature facilitated an inductive data categorization, which in turn derived into classified themes for thematic analysis.
T he most imperative finding has given by following some strategies. Finally, the research outcome will provide understanding of the overall condition of maternal mortality compared with other some nations of Asia. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Email required Address never made public. Name required. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.
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